Table 1

Study characteristics

sample, n
M:F ratio, %/
response rate, %
Brook, 197619Medical school of origin
for psychiatrists
Retrospective cohort531No data provided
Brook, 198321Medical school of origin
for psychiatrists
Retrospective cohort1229No data provided
Levine et al, 198324Medical studentsSurvey30No M:F data/100
Brook et al, 198620Medical studentsSurvey49864:36/40
Calvert et al, 199933Medical studentsSurvey392M:F, no significant
Mcparland et al, 200330Medical studentsCohort study – survey37954:46/84
Maidment et al, 200331Medical studentsSurvey83733.6:66.4/99.6
Petrides & McManus,
Medical studentsCohort study – survey8283Only descriptive data
provided in this paper
Rajagopal et al, 200435Medical studentsSurvey30131.9:68.1/52
Curtis-Barton & Eagles, 201125Medical studentsSurvey46744:64/51
Budd et al, 201126Medical students at 4
different medical schools
Survey90536:64/Not provided
clearly reported range
50–85% depending on
medical school
Archdall et al, 201334Medical studentsSurvey1530:70/100
Halder et al, 201328Medical students –
18 UK medical schools
Farooq et al, 201427Medical students
(only UK data used)
Survey291Males 37:63/16
Maidment et al, 200431Trainee doctorsSurvey23452.1:47.9/67.4
Goldacre et al, 200514Trainee doctors
(graduates from 1974 to
2000, UK medical schools)
Survey21 845 year 1
17 741 year 3
Year 1 55:45/75
Year 3 56:44/74
Lambert et al, 200615Trainee doctorsSurvey572No M:F data/74
Fazel et al, 200913Trainee doctors
(all applicants to MMC for
training posts)
Database analysis31 434No M:F data
Barras & Harris, 201238Trainee doctorsSurvey35952.2:47.8/16.1
Goldacre et al, 201216Trainee doctors who had
qualified in 2002, 2005,
Goldacre et al, 201317Trainee doctors who
qualified between 1974
and 2009
Survey33 974Year 1 49:51/65.9
Year 3 51:49/68.6
Year 5 52:48/69.5
Svirko et al, 201318Trainee doctors who qualified
2005, 2008, 2009
Collier & Moreton, 201322Hospital postgraduate
departments of 19 medical
Survey19 medical
No M:F data/70
Woolf et al, 201537Medical students and
trainee doctors
Cohort study – survey10534:66/50
Korszun et al, 201136Trainee doctors, academics,
trust clinicians
Dein et al, 200739ConsultantsSurvey7268:32/82.7
Denman et al, 201632Consultants and traineesSurveyConsultants: 47
Trainees: 51
(consultants 42%,
trainees 41%)
  • M, male; F, female; MMC, Modernising Medical Careers.

  • a. Data not used from this paper just broad findings in review.